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Friday, December 2, 2016

The Camera Trap Tells the Story

One of my favorite parts of camera trapping is when the photos tell a story. I don't mean a single image that one can interpret, I mean a series of images that tell a tale from beginning to end. Today I pulled three SD cards and found such a series.

Chapter 1: The Coyote. I made this particular set over six weeks ago and in that time coyotes have shown up frequently. Other predators captured include red and gray fox and a neighbor's cat. But this particular coyote looks large and majestic.
Coyote's first appearance of the night

Coyote heads north, away from the camera

Chapter 2: Eastern Cottontail. About an hour later I captured this Eastern Cottontail. Rabbit captures have been common at this set, complimented by gray squirrel captures during the daylight.
Eastern Cottontail about an hour after the Coyote left
Chapter 3: The eyes have it. Look in the distance, in the direction the coyote was last heading. See the eye shine? Could it be the coyote?
Eastern Cottontail with a coyote in the distance

Here is the same photo cropped! I think that IS the coyote.
Eastern Cottontail with coyote eye shine in the background

Chapter 4: The End. A good story can still hold its own even when the action takes place off screen. Here we see that those were indeed the coyote's eyes in the distance. This particular rabbit met its end on this warmer than average morning. I kept the set active. Perhaps another story will emerge. Perhaps in that next story the rabbit will get away...
Coyote captures eastern cottontail

Tuesday, June 28, 2016

Searching for Florida Panther Tracks

Looking for a good way to get the attention of airport security? Try bringing a half-gallon Ziplock bag full of an unmarked powder in your carry-on bag.
Agent: "Sir,what is this?"
Route 29, South Florida
June, 2016
 Me: "Plaster of Paris."
Agent: "And why do you have it?"
Me: "To make casts of animal tracks."
Agent: "What?"
She recommended next time I fly, I take it out of my daypack for easier screening...

I was heading to Tampa, Florida to attend a business meeting but had managed to arrange exactly 25 hours of free time before the opening session to head south and search for Florida panther tracks. That meant a three-hour drive each way once I arrived in Tampa. I sought advice before heading out on where to go. One spot that looked promising on a map was a highway underpass leading from Fakahatchee Strand Preserve State park to the Florida Panther NWR under I-75. My plan was to park to the south near what appear to be flooded quarries in the Northeast corner of "Fak" and hike the two-track to the underpass rather than try to drive the low-clearance rental car on any of it.
I arrived at the hottest part of a (to me at least) very hot and humid day. I have never been to Florida in June and everything appeared to my eye to be very wet. The trail quickly produced domestic dog tracks, similar in size to the panther tracks I sought, and this allowed me to brush up on my canine v. feline track ID skills.
I feel there is much misinformation regarding how to tell cat from dog tracks. For example, many people put far too much stock in whether they see nails or not. First, not all dog tracks show the nails and second, lay persons often do not recognize nails even when present. Consider the dog tracks I photographed only minutes into my hike:
Domestic dog track
Fakahatchee State Park, FL June, 2016
If you look closely at the track above, you can see the nail marks on the left side of the track but I cannot see them on the right side at all.
Domestic dog front (lower track) and rear (upper track) paw prints
Fakahatchee State Park, Florida June, 2016
I followed the trail largely with my head down looking for sign which is not the best way to stay aware of one's surroundings but perhaps a forgivable sin considering the singular purpose of this hike. The trail was a maddening mixture of wonderful muddy substrate followed by long stretches of difficult limestone bedrock. My eyes strained to find recognizable detail in this unfamiliar ground when suddenly a bird leapt up from my very feet. I instantly registered "goatsucker" (the common name for the family Caprimugliformes) as I watched it settle on the trail 15 yards ahead. But which species? It took to flight and the white wing patches confirmed Common Nighthawk.
Common Nighthawk
Florida, June 2016
Common Nighthawk
Florida, June 2016
 I pressed on. I knew from the aerial view on Google Earth that the trail would bend north ahead and i was prepared for the mud, brush and mosquitoes I was to encounter as the trail became less used and more narrow. What I was not prepared for was two feet of standing water. The water stretched as far as I could see and I had at least a half-mile to go before reaching the underpass. I considered continuing but realized that the underpass was probably underwater as well.
It was only a short drive to my next stop. Also in the northeast corner of "Fak" there is an unmarked road that ends at a gate. The road provides access to a few private inholdings and makes for a nice hiking trail for the public. By now it was late afternoon with temperatures and percent humidity still reading in the mid-90s. My glasses, camera and binoculars all fogged while making the transition from the air-conditioned car. I applied more sunscreen and donned my camouflaged bucket hat; the one I plucked from the Indian Ocean while snorkeling in Australia a decade ago. My pack was heavy with plaster, water, camera and field guide. But my spirits were light as I hoped for success.
Facebook friend, fellow blogger and all-around naturalist Janet Pesaturo had recommended this trail to me. She placed camera traps here in January and wrote about her results on her blog here. It didn't take long before I found my first set of tracks. And they were CAT TRACKS!
I guess I knew they were bobcat from the moment I saw them but I still carefully measured them and consulted my field guide. On page 208 of Elbroch's Mammal Tracks & Sign, the author states that the
Bobcat track
Florida, June 2016
heel (or palm or metacarpal) pad of a bobcat measures 1-1 9/16 inches while a panther would be larger. Since toes can sprawl, the heel pad is a more reliable measure than overall track width. These pads were just under 1 1/2 inches, not even at the high end of bobcat so my initial impression was confirmed.
What made me so certain these were feline? First, they show an asymmetry that canine tracks do not. Picture your four fingers without the thumb and you have the toe pattern of a cat. But there are other characteristics too. Look at the shape of each toe. They are nice ovals. The leading toes of most canines are oval but the outer toes of canines are not. Those toes have an inner edge that points toward the center of the track. Panther toe prints are compared to grapes in both size and shape.
Front right Bobcat track
Florida, June 2016
In addition to the toe shape, look at the heel pad shape. Canids have a single bump at the front while felids have two. Sue Morse's trick to remember this is to think of the double bump as the letter M for "meow". It works.

The thunder rumbling in the distance had been barely registering in my mind but as I looked up from the bobcat tracks I noticed an ever darkening sky. I decided to press on but 20 minutes later i saw that I could no longer ignore the incoming thunderstorm. I turned back and reached the car just as the first fat drops of rain began to fall.
The 15 minute drive to the motel in Everglades City was a wet one. It had been a rainy week before I arrived and I saw standing water in every parking lot. I grabbed some food to go and waited out the weather in my room.
A night drive after the storm produced lots of snakes but no mammals. The following morning I was back in my same parking lot at the gate ready to press on where I had to turn back the day before. I relocated the bobcat tracks and they showed that this spot was on the edge of last night's storm as the tracks had not changed much. I continued past the point I reached the day before and quickly found rodent tracks of both gray squirrel and what I believe were hispid cotton rat. A Barred Owl was hooting and I began to spot small alligators among the cypress knees. As I bent to inspect yet another muddy spot, my heart skipped a beat as I saw a clear tow print the size and shape of a grape! Then another. And another. And two more. Wait.... that makes five. My mind screamed "black bear" but I
Black Bear track
(Florida, 2016)
fought that identification with all my might. Surely this was to be my elusive panther! But it was not. One track became two, that became a short trail. Not a Florida panther for sure, but who can remain sad while looking at fresh bear sign.
I pressed on. I found more bear tracks. I birded. I softly grunted to the alligators, imitating the call of the young. I looked in vain for panther tracks. I was lost in thought when I realized I was hearing running water. Ahead the trail was blocked. My search had come to an end. Walking back, I discovered a camera trap, crouched down in front of it for a selfie, and sent Janet a Facebook message asking if it was one of hers. It was.
The drive to Tampa was long but uneventful. I decided I had to return to that trail when there was less water. That night after dinner, I found the passage I was looking for in Maehr's 1997 book The Florida Panther: Life and Death of a Vanishing Carnivore": "We were standing in the heart of the only place east of the Mississippi River where this combination of terrestrial carnivore species - panther, bobcat, and black bear - still live." I smiled at the thought that I had stood there too.








Monday, February 29, 2016

Unusual Bird Tracks

Algonquin Provincial Park East Gate
2/16, Ontario Canada
My wife and I recently made the 325-mile trip to Algonquin Provincial Park to do some wildlife watching and cross-country skiing. We succeeded in both. I have been focused on increasing my tracking skills lately and took the opportunity on this trip to study the trails of American marten, snowshoe hare and red squirrel. But it was the bird sign that we encountered that got me to write this post. I present here two "unusual" tracks.

When most people think of a track, they think of a footprint. But trackers know better. A "track" can be any number of evidence an animal leaves behind,

Ruffed Grouse tracks and body print
2/16, Algonquin Park
EXAMPLE ONE: Ruffed Grouse body print. While skiing the Pinetree Loop Trail, Laura and I spotted Ruffed Grouse tracks crossing the groomed trail. When the bird hopped/flew up from the hard packed trail onto the powdery shoulder, it left an imprint of its entire body as it landed. That impression, called a sitzmark by some, is a track just the same as the peace-sign footsteps that work their way through the snow.

















Each step carefully placed before the last, these tracks always remind me of a zipper.
Ruffed Grouse tracks in snow
2/16, Algonquin Provincial Park
EXAMPLE TWO: Birds on a fence.Wherever we went in the Park, we seemed to encounter birds that were used to being fed. Black-capped Chickadees mobbed us at the end of a road.

Gray Jays are notorious for readily coming to the hand and these were no exception.
Gray Jay
2/16, Algonquin Provincial Park
We left the parking area and hiked for a bit looking for open water and signs of river otter. We ran out of time before finding much of either. A few inches of fresh snow provided an hours-old blanket that had wiped most of the slate clean. And when we returned to the parking area, the birds were there to greet us. And it was the very freshness of the snow that made me notice the gaps on the gate.

Each rail of the gate had patches of snow missing. Some of the patches were shapeless while others looked like the photo above: two slots. I remarked to Laura that they looked like legs. And the more I thought about it, the more I realized I was on to something. We stood back from the gate and watched as birds landed and made new gaps in the snow. These were in fact bird tracks! And we got to watch them being made.

The larger shapeless gaps were places where the bird landed multiple times.


In the photo below, a Chickadee lands in a new location on the gate.

And here are the tracks it left behind:

I was proud of myself for being observant and seeing these subtle signs the Chickadees were leaving behind. Tracks can be so much more than footprints.

Monday, December 7, 2015

Norway Adventure Part II: Lierne

Jan's cabin
It has been many months since I wrote Norway Adventure Part I: The Muskox and I decided I couldn't delay any longer. This post will focus on the second half of our trip, after leaving Kongsvoll. Our train ride to Grong was beautiful. We arrived on time and met our host for the next five days, Jan Totsas. We rented a cabin complete with sauna, mountain bikes and canoe on a private lake.

Jan has a beautiful set up and he was a fantastic host. He loves wildlife, American cars and metal music. He took us fishing on the lake. If you watch the video, you will see we had a fantastic time and caught more than enough for dinner. Laura and I took the mountain bikes out and discovered some young mountain hares.
Young mountain hare Norway
Mountain Hare

Norwegian Mountain Hares
Hares are born precocial. That means they are well-developed at birth: eyes open, fully furred and mobile. Compare that with rabbits which are born altricial: eyes closed, naked and helpless. So these hares were pretty young. They were everywhere. I used the GoPro to take this video of young mountain hares.

Norwegian Troll
One evening we biked to a stream hoping for beaver. We parked our bikes near the statues of trolls (apparently a Norwegian invention) and headed across the meadow. We didn't find any fresh beaver sign but had great sightings of moose, red fox and lots of birds. But it was the bike ride home that produced our best sighting. With Danika in the lead and Laura second, I somehow managed to miss seeing the European pine marten that crossed the road in front of us. It would have been a new mammal for me and an exciting addition to our trip list. Even Jan was impressed!

The gnats were fierce once the sun went down but fortunately for us the days were long. We went to bed knowing that tomorrow was our best chance to see a brown bear.






In Norwegian, this is an Elg. In English, it is a Moose
Norway, July 2015

The Van Niel family in Norway
July 2014
Our last full day before we headed home, it rained. And rained. This was our day to look for bears and bear sign. The bear sign was going to be easy to locate but the bears themselves proved elusive. Jan took us to a location where the bear sign was heavy. We went to a well-known area that contained numerous trees that were bit and scratched along a path. The path included places where the bears had stepped and re-stepped int he same spots so that well-worn footfalls were present. I would call this area a "ritual trail" and I have studied the ones made by black bears here in the US. If you are interested in learning more, check out these posts. They didnt photograph well and I have included no pictures here.



This first photo is a tree that has been bitten and scratched. The purpose of the markings is not entirely clear. Bears are not really territorial. 

Brown bear bites and scratches
Norway, July 2014
Here is a single bite mark on a sapling that tore a nice chip from this tree. Note the wood fibers that were torn by the bear's canine teeth. If you look VERY close you can see that the fibers point towards the center indicating canines moving in both directions rather than say a bullet grazing the tree and moving in one direction.
The clean bite of a brown bear.
Norway, July 2014
Brown bear hair left while rubbing
Norway, July 2014
On our way back to the vehicle Jan took me to a sandy hill with some older tracks that further suffered from rain. I sure wish we had seen these tracks when they were fresh. But I did my best to photograph these older sandy tracks. The closest track is a front. The next is a rear.
Old brown bear tracks in sand
Norway, July 2015
We had a fantastic time in Norway. We only saw nine species of mammals but most were new for me. We structured the first part of our trip around the musk ox and our second half around the area with the bear sign.





Friday, July 31, 2015

A Tale of Three Cameras

"Button Buck" captured on camera trap
(Muller Field Station, 5/15)
I set three Reconyx cameras at our Muller Field Station in May of this year. They were retrieved about a month later. Each of the sets were located along the channel but each had very different results.  I guess this is one of the reasons I enjoy camera trapping so much. First, you never know what you are going to get and second, there is really a level of knowledge you need to tease out what is happening in the photos. Here are some of the best stories from each:





SET 1: Let's see... 145 captures X 10 photos per capture = 1,450 photos to sort through. I captured
Raccoon inspects snapping turtle
(Muller Field Station, 6/15)
six species of mammal at this location (including that handsome deer in the photo above) but my favorite story involved a reptile. In the photo to the left, you can see the top of a shell of a snapping turtle. It appears the raccoon doesn't know what to make of it. I wish the camera was set a bit lower to capture the whole image, but we will have to make due.






















The next day, the turtle was in the exact same place (making me pretty sure it was a female laying eggs) and two river otters found her. In this photo, the one of the river otters actually puts it front paws on the carapace.
River otter and snapping turtle
(Muller Field Station, 6/15)



SET 2: The otters visited this site as well. With no turtles to play with, they had to occupy their time in other ways. They visited a total of five times in the month but never stayed for more than a few minutes.
Daytime capture of river otter
(Muller Field Station, 5/15)


River otters mating?
(Muller Field Station, 6/15)
Alright, let's talk about that last photo. Although the otters are in the mating position, I am not certain that they are actually copulating here. This could just be play. What I am certain of is that the encounter was brief.
Otters weren't the only story here. Canada Geese came on many nights to loaf in front of the camera.
Banded Canada Goose and goslings
(Muller Field Station, 5/15)
That means lots of photos. I assumed that it was the same group of birds each night but when I looked closer, I noticed that on a few occasions, a banded adult showed up while on other nights, the adults were all unbanded. I don't recall ever camera trapping a banded bird before.







SET 3: This was the most interesting set. Years ago a tree toppled over the channel and what was the trunk is now a horizontal trunk that is suspended over the water. I have always wanted to create a set here and finally did. One of the tree limbs, now pointing towards the sky, worked as a perfect point of attachment. I assumed I would get river otters here. I mean, it just looked like a real inviting place for otters to climb up and explore. It turns out this was the only set that did not capture otters. Instead, I captured my other favorite mammal... black bear! And it only took four hours from the time the cameras were set until the bear showed up (I understand how lucky that is! The last time I set a camera at the Muller Field Station, it took 10 weeks to capture a bear image).
Black bear
(Muller Field Station, 5/15)

Black bear showing hind paw
(Muller Field Station, 5/15)
Birds were the second story of this set.
Wood Duck drake
(Muller Field Station, 5/15)
Great Blue Heron
(Muller Field Station, 6/15)
Wood Duck hen
(Muller Field Station, 6/15)
Take a look at the photo above. The photo below was taken less than 48 hours later. The camera hasn't moved but the water level changed dramatically. Instead of ducks loafing on a dry perch in front of the camera, they are SWIMMING past it. This was not the only hard rain we had this year and I am grateful that the camera stayed above the waterline :)
Mallards
(Muller Field Station, 6/15)